Volume 38, Issue 4, April 2003

Work in Progress
High-Performance Glass-Continuously Improving Energy Efficiency of Windows 

by Frank Davey

Architects continually look for new types of reflective and low-E coatings to achieve a certain look, as well as the best possible energy efficiency. 

In the last ten years, the residential and commercial window markets have undergone a major technological revolution. Windows are no longer considered the weak link in energy-efficient building design. New and improved coating technologies help architects continue to expand glass applications without sacrificing energy efficiency. Some innovations include: new reflective and low-E coatings, low-conductance gas fills, warm-edge spacers, thermally improved sashes and frames, solar-control glazings and coatings and improved weatherstripping products. 

Current Technology
For commercial buildings, the most important consideration in choosing the proper glazing is solar heat gain control. However, heat loss must also be evaluated, particularly in cold climates. Utilizing passive solar heat gain efficiently to reduce heating costs is an important consideration. This “free” heat can be used in either commercial or residential markets. 

According to a recent study performed by Ducker Research Co. (May 2001—Study of the 2000 North American Fabricated Glass Market), the market for coated products has grown significantly during the past five years. This is due to the strong demand in construction markets and the increased demand for high-performance glazing, particularly low-E glass. Reflective glass shipments also have grown, due primarily to the increase in overall glazing demand. However, forecasts predict declining shipments over the next few years, based on a softening market (which we are now experiencing), and a decline in market penetration as multi-functional low-E glasses increase their share. We have also seen a dramatic increase in the use of silk-screened ceramic frit, combined with low-E coatings and the increased use of laminated glass. The trend in glass selection is changing quickly from approximately 70 percent reflective and 30 percent low-E, to 70 percent low-E and 30 percent reflective. This is due to the efforts on the part of architects to achieve more natural light in their building designs with less “mirror-like” appearance. 

Customers in different areas of the world are ordering glass systems featuring different color combinations, reflectance levels, solar heat gain coefficients and other performance characteristics. 

Performance Standards
Thanks to new coating technologies and recently developed manufacturing processes, flat glass manufacturers are well-equipped to meet specialized demands. To satisfy customers’ energy-control requirements, a comprehensive line of low-E glass has been developed, tailored to different geographic regions and seasonal heating/cooling requirements. For example, our company’s Comfort ES 72N is a solar control type low- E coating, with an excellent U-value and good solar heat gain control. Other types of low-E coatings may be designed for cold climates, still with excellent U-value, but will allow more heat from the sun to enter the house or building for more effective passive solar heating. 

Performance standards change from year-to-year and from region to region. 

Resources 
AAMA
www.aamanet.org
1827 Walden Office Square, Suite 550
Schaumberg, IL 60173-4268
847/303-5664

ASTM International
www.astm,org
100 Barr Harbor Dr.
West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959
610/832-9585

BOCA International
www.bocai.org
4051 West Flossmoor Rd.
Country Club Hills, IL 60478
800/214-4321

Canadian General Standards Board
www.pwgsc.gc.ca.cgsb
Place du Portage III-6B1
11 Laurier St.
Hull, Quebec
K1A 1G6
819/956-0894

Ducker Research Co.
www.ducker.com
6905 Telegraph Rd.
Bloomfield Hills, MI 48301
248/644-0086

GANA
www.glasswebsite.com
2945 SW Wanamaker Dr., Suite A
Topeka, KS 66614-5321
785/271-0208

IGCC
www.igcc.org
PO Box 9
Henderson Harbor, NY 13651
315/646-2234

IGMA
www.igmaonline.org
27 Goulburn Ave.
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada
K1N8C7
613/233-1510

SGCC
www.sgcc.org
PO Box 9
Henderson Harbor, NY 13651
315/646-2234
IGMA 


Various states and provinces have now passed legislation geared toward reducing energy consumption and controlling costs for both residential and commercial markets. Requirements are driven mostly by state and local building codes and regulations. Most recently, through Senate Bill 5 (SB 5), Texas adopted the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) and the energy-efficient chapter of the International Residential Code (IRC) as the statewide building energy code. Together, the IRC and the IECC apply to all residential, commercial and industrial construction. Under SB5, windows in locations with less than 3,500 heating degree days must have a solar heat gain coefficient of 0.40 or lower, which includes all but 16 panhandle counties. 

Internationally, the city of Shanghai limits the use of glass to 40 percent of the exterior building facade for improved energy efficiency. The People’s Republic of China has mandated the use of tempered glass in its buildings. Currently in Singapore, the exterior reflectance of the glass must meet the maximum 10 percent. Heat-soaked tempered glass is now mandatory in Hong Kong and in some parts of China and is being specified more and more—not only overseas, but also in North America. 

A building’s annual energy requirements, the impact of HVAC and interior lighting also have a bearing on performance requirements. 

Architects worldwide have in-creased their focus on controlling energy costs for both heating and air conditioning. With the continued growth of low-E coatings in building envelopes, architects continue to look for new combinations of reflective and low-E coatings to comply with energy cost goals for specific individual buildings. In hot climates, such as Australia, the primary concern is minimizing solar heat gain. In Canada and much of the United States, however, solar heat is an important source of “free energy” during the cold winter months, particularly for residential housing. Canada’s climate has dictated an increasing popularity of high light and solar energy transmitting glass, as well as growth of argon filling and triple glazing to minimize the use of both heating and cooling, and maximize year-round energy efficiencies.

Custom Specifications
Whatever the reasons—aesthetics, energy control or environmental factors—architects around the world are no longer satisfied with a “one-product-fits-all” approach when they specify glass products. Today, more than ever, manufacturing facilities are receiving a wide variety of custom specifications.
As with any other product, high-performance glass is generally called for using one of three specifying methods:
 
Descriptive: Detailed description of the physical properties, quality and workmanship required for the proper installation of a product of material. (i.e., a solar-control type low-E coating that combines very high light transmittance with sufficient solar heat gain control, while maintaining a neutral appearance similar to uncoated glass).

Reference: Standard. Uses nationally recognized product and material standards rather than individually written product or installation criteria.

Proprietary: Describes product and materials by manufacturer’s name, brand, product code or other unique characteristic. 

Customers today demand a high-quality product. To ensure that glass products meet certain minimum quality and performance standards, there are several certification agencies in place: IGMA and IGCC for sealed units and SGCC for tempered glass products. In addition, there are a number of national standards for most types of glass products, such as CAN/CGSB in Canada and ASTM in the United States. Associations such as IGMA, SIGMA, GANA and AAMA also publish very useful information pertaining to glass products and their uses.

High-performance glass also requires unique fabrication capabilities and quality control. Once on site, extreme care must be exercised when glazing and cleaning the glass to ensure that it is not damaged. Reflective coatings that are not insulated, laminated or otherwise protected can be scratched. Once glazed, consideration should be given to protecting the coated surface until construction and all sub-trade work is completed. 

The technology available today meets the unique specifications of architects around the world: combining low-E glass with a full offering of high-performance/medium- performance coatings, different color options, insulating glass configurations and special processes such as tempering, heat strengthening and laminating, to name a few. Clearly, there has been great progress in improving window energy efficiency in the last decade, but even greater evolution lies ahead. Many new innovations, such as “smart windows,” which can be programmed to modulate the flow of light or solar heat across the window automatically, are being developed. High-performance glass products will continue to be the right choice for architects and designers worldwide.

Frank Davey is the executive vice president for AFGD Glass Canada.


USG

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